Liens in Bankruptcy: The Ultimate Guide, Explained
Liens in bankruptcy typically survive and don’t get affected by the discharge. However, there are exceptions where the lien can be reduced or even eliminated. I try to break these down in simple terms that are easy to grasp. But don’t be fooled: bankruptcy is more complicated than you think. Get a consultation with an attorney, and make sure you check out my list of 12 crucial tips to do or avoid before filing bankruptcy.
What is a Lien in Bankruptcy?
A lien is a security interest of a debt that encumbers a thing owned by the borrower until the debt is paid. One common example is a car and the car loan. The borrower who “owns” a car can’t just sell the car outright. He has to pay the debt secured by the lien against the car first. Then, once the debt is paid, the lien is satisfied and removed.
Section 101(37) of the Bankruptcy Code defines “lien” as:
charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation.
How does bankruptcy affect a lien? The General Rule
The general rule for liens in bankruptcy (and there are exceptions) is that bankruptcy doesn’t affect a lien at all. If a debt is secured by a lien and collateral, if you wish to keep the asset, then that debt will survive the bankruptcy. You don’t get a free house or car in bankruptcy. Here, let me put that in a fancy quote because it is so important:
You don’t get a free house or car in bankruptcy.
– Attorney Hale Andrew Antico